Grundlagen: Anbau Cannabispflanzen

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1.Why grow cannabis?



Growing cannabis can be a rewarding and enriching experience that offers you many benefits. Here are some of the top reasons why you should consider growing your own cannabis:

Advantages of growing your own

When you grow your own cannabis, you have complete control over the entire cultivation process. You determine the quality of the plants, the nutrients used and the cultivation methods. This way you can ensure that your cannabis is free from pesticides and other harmful chemicals.

Another benefit is cost savings. Growing your own cannabis can be significantly cheaper than buying it from a store. While there is an initial investment in equipment and materials, you will save money in the long run, especially if you are a regular cannabis user.

In addition, home cultivation allows you toCannabis strainsto try and cultivate new strains that may not be available in your local store. You can experiment and find out which strains best suit your needs and preferences.

Medical and recreational applications

Many people grow cannabis for medicinal reasons. Cannabis has been shown to be helpful in relieving symptoms of various diseases and conditions, including chronic pain, insomnia, anxiety, and loss of appetite. By growing your own medical cannabis, you can ensure that you always have access to the medicine you need without having to rely on outside sources.

For recreational consumers, growing your own offers the opportunity to enjoy the highest quality cannabis whenever they want. You can be confident in the purity and potency of your product, ensuring a safer and more enjoyable consumption experience.

Legal considerations

In Germany, the cultivation of cannabis is regulated by the Cannabis Act (CanG). Before you start growing cannabis, it is important toLegal situationin your state. The CanG allows the cultivation of cannabis for personal use, especially for medicinal purposes, under certain conditions. Make sure you read the local laws thoroughly to make sure you are operating within the law.

To grow cannabis legally, you will usually need to obtain a permit. There are specific regulations regarding the number of plants you can grow and the conditions under which the cultivation can take place. These regulations can vary from state to state, so it is important to find out about the specific requirements in your area.

Control and quality assurance

When you grow your own, you can get the bestBreeding mediaand nutrients to maximize the health and potency of your plants. You can use methods to optimize THC and CBD levels and increase yields. This control over the entire growing process allows you to create a product that meets your exact requirements.

Sustainability and environmental friendliness

Growing your own cannabis can also be more sustainable and environmentally friendly than buying commercially grown cannabis. You can use organic growing methods that are less harmful to the environment and reduce your carbon footprint.

By using thecorrect cultivation locations and methods, you can also use resources more efficiently and minimize energy consumption. Growing indoors using energy-efficient LED lights and well-insulated rooms can also help reduce your carbon footprint.

2. Basic cultivation requirements

Growing cannabis requires a certain amount of knowledge and preparation to ensure healthy plants and a good harvest. Here are the basic requirements you should keep in mind when growing cannabis:

Light requirements

Light is one of the most important components for the growth of cannabis plants. They require a sufficient amount of light to perform photosynthesis and grow healthily. Most growers use special grow lights such as LED or HID lights. These provide the right spectrum and intensity of light that cannabis plants need.

  • Vegetation phase: 18 hours light, 6 hours darkness
  • Flowering phase: 12 hours light, 12 hours darkness

You can find out more about the right lighting in the chapterlighting.

Water requirements

Water is also essential for the growth of cannabis plants. Proper watering can make the difference between a healthy plant and a stressed one. Make sure the soil is always moist, but not soggy. Overwatering can lead to root rot, while underwatering will dry out the plant.

  • Use pH-neutral water (pH 6.0 to 7.0)
  • Make sure excess water can drain away

Further details on watering and care can be found in the chapterPour.

Nutrient requirements

Cannabis plants require a balanced supply of nutrients to grow optimally. The most important macronutrients are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), often given as an NPK ratio. In addition to these, they also need micronutrients such as calcium, magnesium and sulfur.

  • Vegetation phase: High nitrogen requirement
  • Flowering phase: Higher need for phosphorus and potassium

You can learn more about the right nutrients in the chapterThe function of nutrients.

Temperature and humidity

Controlling temperature and humidity is crucial for the well-being of your plants. During the vegetative phase, the ideal temperature is between 20 and 28 degrees Celsius, and during the flowering phase, between 18 and 26 degrees Celsius. Humidity should be between 40% and 70% during the vegetative phase and reduced to 40% to 50% during the flowering phase.

  • Vegetation phase: 20-28°C, 40-70% humidity
  • Flowering phase: 18-26°C, 40-50% humidity

For more information on controlling temperature and humidity, see the chapterTemperature and humidity.

Cultivation locations and methods

The growing location and method you choose will also affect the success of your grow. Indoor growing gives you the opportunity to better control environmental conditions, while outdoor growing makes use of natural resources such as sunlight and rainwater.

You can find out more about the different cultivation methods in the chapterCultivation locations and methods.

By following these basic growing requirements, you will lay the foundation for successful cannabis cultivation. You can find more detailed instructions and tips in the relevant chapters of our grow guide.

3. The growth phases of the cannabis plant

To successfully grow cannabis, it is important to understand the different growth phases of the plant. Each phase has specific requirements and needs that must be taken into account in order to cultivate healthy and productive plants.

germination

Germination is the first step in the life cycle of the cannabis plant. During this phase, the seed develops into a seedling. It is crucial that the seeds germinate in a moist and warm environment.

  • Temperature: 20-25°C
  • Humidity: 70-90%

Light: Darkness until the seedlings appear

Further details on germination can be found in the chapterSeeds germinate.

Seedling phase

In the seedling phase, the seedling develops its first leaves and roots. This phase lasts about two to three weeks. High humidity and constant temperature are important to promote growth.

  • Temperature: 20-25°C
  • Humidity: 60-70%
  • Light: 18-24 hours of light per day

You can learn more about this phase in the chapterCannabis seedlings.

Growing period

During the growing season, the plant grows vigorously and develops many leaves and stems. This phase can last several weeks to months, depending on the desired plant height and size.

  • Temperature: 20-28°C
  • Humidity: 40-70%
  • Light: 18 hours light, 6 hours darkness
  • Nutrients: High nitrogen requirement

For more information about the growing season, see the chapterGrowing period.

Flowering phase

The flowering phase is the last growth phase and begins when the light hours are reduced. During this phase, the plant produces flowers and resin. The flowering phase usually lasts 6-10 weeks, depending on the variety.

  • Temperature: 18-26°C
  • Humidity: 40-50%
  • Light: 12 hours light, 12 hours darkness
  • Nutrients: Higher need for phosphorus and potassium

You can learn more about the flowering phase in the chapterFlowering phase.

4. Important terms and concepts in cannabis cultivation

When growing cannabis, there are a variety of terms and concepts you should know in order to be successful. Here are some of the most important:

THC and CBD

THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol) are two of the most well-known cannabinoids found in cannabis plants. THC is psychoactive and responsible for the "high" feeling, while CBD is non-psychoactive and is valued for its medicinal properties.

  • THC:Psychoactive cannabinoid found mainly inSativa and Indica strainsoccurs.
  • CBD:Non-psychoactive cannabinoid often used in medical cannabis products.

Photoperiod

Photoperiod refers to the daily light-dark period that cannabis plants receive. It plays a crucial role in the plant's life cycle, influencing growth and flowering.

  • Vegetation phase:18 hours light, 6 hours darkness
  • Flowering phase:12 hours of light, 12 hours of darkness

For more information about the photoperiod, see the chapterlighting.

Autoflowering vs. Photoperiod Plants

There are two main types of cannabis plants: autoflowering and photoperiod plants. Autoflowering plants start flowering automatically, regardless of the light-dark time, while photoperiod plants require a change in light conditions to enter the flowering phase.

Indica, Sativa and Hybrids

There are three main categories of cannabis strains: Indica, Sativa and Hybrids. Each has unique characteristics and effects:

  • Indicas:Known for its relaxing and calming effects, ideal for evening use.
  • Cannabis:Known for its invigorating and cerebral effects, ideal for daytime use.
  • Hybrids:A blend of Indica and Sativa genetics that offers a combination of the characteristics of both species.

You can learn more about the different varieties in the chapterCannabis strains.

Feminized seeds

Feminized seeds are bred to produce almost exclusively female plants. This is important because only female plants produce flowers that contain the desired cannabinoids.

  • Reduces the likelihood of male plants
  • Increases efficiency and yield

Regular seeds

Regular seeds can produce both male and female plants. They are often cheaper than feminized seeds, but require more effort as male plants must be removed to prevent pollination of the female plants.

  • Requires identification and removal of male plants
  • Useful for breeding projects

For further details on choosing the right seed, see the chapterChoosing the right seed.

Sativa, Indica and Ruderalis

Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis are the three main types of the cannabis plant. Sativa and Indica are the most well-known and commonly cultivated, while Ruderalis is often used in breeding programs due to its autoflowering properties.

  • Cannabis:Tall, slender plants with long, narrow leaves.
  • Indicas:Short, bushy plants with broad leaves.
  • Ruderalis:Small, robust plants that flower quickly.

By understanding these important terms and concepts, you will lay a solid foundation for your successful cannabis cultivation. Use the other chapters of our grow guide to get detailed instructions and tips to help you achieve your growing goals.

5. Choosing the right seeds

Choosing the right seeds is a crucial step in growing cannabis. There are different types of seeds, each offering different characteristics and benefits. Here are the most important factors to consider when choosing:

Feminized seeds

Feminized seeds are bred to produce almost exclusively female plants. Since only female plants produce flowers with the desired cannabinoids, feminized seeds offer greater efficiency and yield reliability.

  • Reduces the likelihood of male plants
  • Increases efficiency and yield
  • Ideal for growers who do not want to discard plants

For more details on feminized seeds, see the chapterFeminized seeds.

Regular seeds

Regular seeds can produce both male and female plants. These seeds are often cheaper than feminized seeds, but require more effort as male plants must be removed to prevent pollination of the female plants.

  • Can produce male and female plants
  • Cheaper than feminized seeds
  • Useful for breeding projects

You can learn more about regular seeds in the chapterRegular seeds.

Autoflowering seeds

Autoflowering seeds are bred to flower automatically regardless of the light-dark period. This feature makes them particularly easy to cultivate and ideal for beginners.

  • Bloom automatically after a certain time
  • Less sensitive to changes in light
  • Faster life cycle
  • Ideal for beginners

For more information about autoflowering seeds, see the chapterAutoflowering seeds.

Sativa, Indica and Hybrids

When choosing seeds, you should also consider the desired effect and the growth characteristics of the plant. There are three main categories of cannabis strains: sativa, indica and hybrids.

You can learn more about the different varieties in the chapterCannabis strains.

Seed banks and quality

The quality of the seeds plays an important role in the success of your cultivation. It is advisable to buy seeds from reputable seed banks that guarantee a high germination rate and genetic stability.

  • Reputable seed banks offer high germination rates
  • Genetic stability is important for consistent results
  • Pay attention to customer reviews and recommendations

You can learn more about choosing the right sperm bank in the chapterSeed banks and quality.

By understanding the different types of seeds and their characteristics, you can make the best choice for your grow. For more detailed instructions and tips, check out the relevant chapters of our grow guide.

6. Cultivation locations and methods

Choosing the right growing location and cultivation method is crucial to the success of your cannabis cultivation. In Germany, the cultivation of cannabis is subject to strict legal regulations according to the Cannabis Act (CanG). Here are the most important aspects to consider when choosing the growing location and method:

Indoor cultivation

Growing cannabis indoors gives you the opportunity to have more control over environmental conditions. You can precisely control temperature, humidity, light intensity and nutrient supply to create optimal growing conditions.

  • Advantages:Controlled environmental conditions, independence from weather and seasons, higher yields
  • Disadvantages:Higher cultivation costs, need for special equipment

For more information on indoor cultivation, see the chapterIndoor cultivation.

Outdoor cultivation

Outdoor cultivation makes use of natural resources such as sunlight and rainwater. This method is more cost-effective, but also more dependent on weather conditions and the time of year. It is important to choose a suitable location with sufficient sunlight and protection from strong winds and storms.

  • Advantages:Lower costs, natural growth conditions
  • Disadvantages:Dependence on weather and seasons, increased space requirements

You can learn more about outdoor cultivation in the chapterOutdoor cultivation.

Guerrilla Growing

Guerrilla growing refers to the cultivation of cannabis in remote or hidden locations in order to keep the cultivation secret. This method requires careful planning and site selection to ensure that the plants remain undetected while still having optimal growing conditions.

  • Advantages:Discretion, use of natural resources
  • Disadvantages:Risk of detection, limited control over environmental conditions

For more details on Guerilla Growing, see the chapterGuerrilla Growing.

Hydroponics

Hydroponic systems allow cannabis to be grown without soil. Instead, plants grow in a nutrient solution that contains all the necessary minerals and nutrients. This method offers precise control over nutrient delivery and can lead to faster growth rates and higher yields.

  • Advantages:Faster growth rates, higher yields, less space required
  • Disadvantages:Higher initial investment, need for technical knowledge

You can learn more about hydroponic systems in the chapterHydroponic cultivation.

Choosing the right growing location

When choosing a place to grow your cannabis, you should take the legal regulations in Germany into account. The CanG stipulates the conditions under which the cultivation of cannabis is legal. It is important that you inform yourself about the specific regulations in your federal state and comply with them.

By understanding the different growing locations and methods, you can make the best choice for your cannabis cultivation. For more detailed instructions and tips, check out the relevant chapters of our grow guide.

7. Important equipment and materials

To successfully grow cannabis, you will need a range of equipment and materials to help you create optimal growing conditions. Here are the key items you will need for your grow:

Lighting systems

Proper lighting is crucial for the growth and flowering of your cannabis plants. There are different types of lighting systems you can use:

  • Led Lamps:Energy efficient, low heat emission, long service life
  • HID lamps:High light intensity, good for large cultivation areas
  • Fluorescent lamps:Cheap, good for germination and early seedling phase

For more information about lighting, see the chapterlighting.

Ventilation and air circulation

Good ventilation is crucial to prevent mold and pests and to provide plants with sufficient CO₂. Here are the most important ventilation elements:

  • Exhaust fans:Remove used air and excess heat
  • Supply air fans:Bring fresh air into the growing room
  • Recirculation fans:Ensure even air circulation within the growing area

You can learn more about ventilation and air circulation in the chapterventilation.

Nutrient solutions and fertilizers

Cannabis plants require a balanced supply of nutrients to grow healthily and produce high yields. There are special fertilizers for the different growth phases of the plant:

  • Growth fertilizer:High nitrogen content for the growing season
  • Flower fertilizer:High phosphorus and potassium content for the flowering phase
  • Micronutrients:Calcium, magnesium, iron and other important minerals

For further details on nutrients, see the chapternutrient.

Pots and containers

Choosing the right pots and containers will affect the root growth and health of your plants. There are different types of pots you can use:

  • Fabric pots:Provide good air circulation for the roots
  • Plastic pots:Affordable and available in various sizes
  • Hydroponic containers:Specially developed for hydroponic systems

You can learn more about choosing the right pots in the chapterPots and containers.

pH and EC meters

Controlling the pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the nutrient solution is crucial for the plants' nutrient uptake. Here are the most important measuring devices:

  • pH meters:Check the acidity of the nutrient solution
  • EC measuring devices:Measure the concentration of nutrients in the solution

For more information on pH and EC control, see the chapterpH and EC value.

Irrigation systems

Consistent watering is important to ensure optimal growth of your plants. There are different watering systems you can use:

  • Manual watering:Simple and inexpensive, but requires regular attention
  • Automatic irrigation systems:Drip irrigation or irrigation timer for a consistent water supply

You can learn more about irrigation systems in the chapterirrigation.

The right equipment and materials are crucial to the success of your cannabis cultivation. With the tools and equipment mentioned above, you can create optimal growing conditions and cultivate healthy, high-yielding plants.

8. Preparation and planning of cultivation

Thorough preparation and planning are essential to ensure a successful cannabis cultivation. Here are the most important aspects to consider:

Schedule and cultivation cycle

Growing cannabis goes through different stages, from germination to the vegetative period to flowering and harvesting. It is important to create a detailed schedule that takes into account the specific requirements of each stage.

  • Germination:1-2 weeks
  • Seedling phase:2-3 weeks
  • Vegetation period:4-8 weeks or longer
  • Flowering phase:6-10 weeks, depending on the variety
  • Harvesting and drying:2-3 weeks

A detailed description of the growth phases can be found in the chapterGrowth phases.

Space requirements and arrangement

The amount of space available will determine how many plants you can grow and what growing method is best. Plan the growing area so that there is enough room for plants to grow, equipment, and freedom of movement.

Further details on space planning can be found in the chapterCultivation locations and methods.

Cost calculation and budget

Growing cannabis can involve a variety of costs, from purchasing equipment to ongoing operating costs. Create a budget that covers all necessary expenses to ensure you are financially prepared.

  • Initial costs:Lighting systems, ventilation, pots, nutrients, seeds
  • Running costs:Electricity, water, spare parts, nutrients

Example of a cost calculation

For more information on budget planning, see the chapterCost calculation.

Legal considerations

Growing cannabis in Germany is governed by the Cannabis Act (CanG). Make sure you research your local laws and regulations to make sure your cultivation is legal.

  • Restrictions on the number of plants
  • Maximum cannabis quantity

Further information on the legal situation can be found in the chapterLegal situation.

Environmental conditions

Make sure you create the ideal environmental conditions for your grow. This includes temperature, humidity, light and ventilation. These factors significantly affect the growth and health of your plants.

  • Temperature:20-28°C during the growing season, 18-26°C during the flowering phase
  • Humidity:40-70% during the growing season, 40-50% during the flowering phase
  • Light:18 hours of light for vegetation, 12 hours of light for flowering
  • Ventilation:Good air circulation to prevent mold and pests

You can find out more about the environmental conditions in the chapterEnvironmental conditions.

By preparing and planning carefully, you lay the foundation for successful cannabis cultivation. Use the other chapters of our grow guide to get detailed instructions and tips.

9. Common beginner mistakes and how to avoid them

There are many potential pitfalls when growing cannabis that beginners often overlook. Here are some of the most common mistakes and how to avoid them to ensure a successful grow:

Over- and under-irrigation

One of the most common causes of problems when growing cannabis is improper watering. Too much water can lead to root rot and other diseases, while too little water can cause the plant to dry out.

  • Overwatering:Avoid watering the plants too often. Wait until the top layer of soil is dry before watering again.
  • Under-irrigation:Make sure the soil stays evenly moist but not waterlogged.

You can find out more about proper irrigation in the chapterPour.

Nutrient deficiencies and surpluses

A balanced supply of nutrients is crucial for the healthy growth of your plants. Too little or too much of certain nutrients can lead to growth problems.

  • Nutrient deficiencies:Yellow leaves can indicate a nitrogen deficiency, while burnt leaf tips are often a sign of a potassium deficiency.
  • Nutrient surpluses:Over-fertilization can cause nutrient burn and other damage. Stick to recommended dosages.

For further details on nutrient deficiencies and surpluses, see the chapterNutrient deficienciesandNutrient surplus.

Pest and disease prevention

Pests and diseases can significantly affect your crops. Good prevention and early detection are crucial to avoid serious damage.

  • Pest prevention:Keep your growing area clean and monitor regularly for signs of pests such as spider mites, thrips or aphids.
  • Disease prevention:Avoid high humidity and stagnant air to prevent mold and mildew. Ventilation and air circulation are crucial.

You can learn more about pest and disease prevention in the chapterPestsandDiseases.

Mistakes in pruning and training

Pruning and training are techniques that can optimize the growth and yields of your plants, but if done incorrectly, they can also cause damage.

  • Trimming:Only remove diseased or unnecessary leaves. Excessive pruning can stress the plant and hamper its growth.
  • Training:LST (low stress training) and HST (high stress training) can increase yields if used correctly. Be careful and gentle so as not to damage the plant.

For more information on pruning and training, see the chapterTraining techniques.

Lighting error

Lighting is another critical factor in growing cannabis. Too little or too much light can affect the growth of your plants.

  • Too little light:This will result in slow growth and spindly plants. Make sure your plants get enough light, especially during the growing season.
  • Too much light:Excessive lighting can burn the leaves and cause stress. Keep the lights at an appropriate distance from the plants.

You can find out more about the right lighting in the chapterlighting.

By avoiding these common mistakes and using the right techniques, you can ensure that your cannabis plants grow healthy and produce high yields. Use the other chapters of our grow guide to get detailed instructions and tips.

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